Main menu


Idaho Rules of Evidence Rule 901. Authenticating or Identifying Evidence.

(a)  In General. To satisfy the requirement of authenticating or identifying an item of evidence, the proponent must produce evidence sufficient to support a finding that the item is what the proponent claims it is.


(b)  Examples. The following are examples only--not a complete list--of evidence that satisfies the requirement:


(1)  Testimony of a Witness with Knowledge. Testimony that an item is what it is claimed to be.


(2)  Nonexpert Opinion About Handwriting. A nonexpert's opinion that handwriting is genuine, based on a familiarity with it that was not acquired for the current litigation.


(3)  Comparison by an Expert Witness or the Trier of Fact. A comparison with an authenticated specimen by an expert witness or the trier of fact.


(4)  Distinctive Characteristics and the Like. The appearance, contents, substance, internal patterns, or other distinctive characteristics of the item, taken together with all the circumstances.


(5)  Opinion About a Voice. An opinion identifying a person's voice--whether heard firsthand or through mechanical or electronic transmission or recording--based on hearing the voice at any time under circumstances that connect it with the alleged speaker.


(6)  Evidence About a Telephone Conversation. For a telephone conversation, evidence that a call was made to the number assigned at the time to:

(A)  a particular person, if circumstances, including self-identification, show that the person answering was the one called; or

(B)  a purported public record or statement is from the office where items of this kind are kept.


(7)  Evidence About Public Records. Evidence that:

(A)  a document was recorded or filed in a public office as authorized by law; or

(B)  a purported public record or statement is from the office where items of this kind are kept.


(8)  Evidence About Ancient Documents or Data Compilations. For a document or data compilation, evidence that it:

(A)  is in a condition that creates no suspicion about its authenticity;

(B)  was in a place where, if authentic, it would likely be; and

(C)  is at least 30 years old when offered.


(9)  Evidence About a Process or System. Evidence describing a process or system and showing that it produces an accurate result.


(10)  Methods Provided by a Statute or Rule. Any method of authentication or identification allowed by a Supreme Court rule, by an Idaho statute, or by the Idaho Constitution. 


(Adopted March 26, 2018, effective July 1, 2018.)


As the Third Branch of Government, we provide access to justice through the timely, fair, and impartial resolution of cases.


Members of the
Idaho Supreme Court

Chief Justice G Richard Bevan
Justice Robyn M. Brody
Justice Gregory W. Moeller
Justice Colleen D. Zahn
Justice Cynthia K.C. Meyer

Members of the
Idaho Court of Appeals

Chief Judge David W. Gratton
Judge Molly J Huskey
Judge Jessica M. Lorello
Judge Michael P. Tribe



Promoting Openness In The Courts
Do you have suggestions about how we can better serve you?